Class | 5:30 pm - 6:45 pm | MW | Natural Science Center 272 | Jan 09, 2012 - April 30, 2012 |

__Instructor__: Mark Stockman

__Office__: 406 Science Annex
(by appointment)

Phone: (678)457-4739 (worldwide mobile)

E-mail: mstockman@gsu.edu

Web site: http://www.phy-astr.gsu.edu/stockman/

Grading: 30% midterm exam, 70% final exam (subject to change)

These rules are designed to allow
students to get the maximum benefit
for
their time and money spent.
The physical attendance of lectures is not required but strongly
recommended.
If you happen to be late, enter class, do not apologize, quietly
take
your
seat and start working. If you need to leave, do so also as
quietly as
possible, do not ask permission. Timely submission of home
assignments
is required. The home assignments are due in one week after they
are
given. They will not be graded but you will be given detailed
solutions
in writing, and you will be welcome to discuss them either in
class or
at the office.

**Do not talk in class** even in a low voice since it is
disruptive
(asking a fellow student a brief question is admissible, but
should be
kept to the minimum). Do not hesitate to interrupt the lecturer
with
any
questions or comment, since it is beneficial for the class. (Do
not
assume
that your question is too trivial to ask -- it may well be not so
trivial.
Many students may have a similar problem. No questions and
comments in
class will affect your grades in any way. Please, your question is very important -- ask
it!)

At the exams, you may not use any notes or books, unless specifically allowed. You may briefly (for not more than five minutes) leave the class room after one hour of work without asking permission. You should bring your calculator (no data banks) and pen or pencils. The paper needed will be given to you. The date and time of the final exam cannot be changed.

At the exams, you may not use any notes or books, unless specifically allowed. You may briefly (for not more than five minutes) leave the class room after one hour of work without asking permission. You should bring your calculator (no data banks) and pen or pencils. The paper needed will be given to you. The date and time of the final exam cannot be changed.

**SYLLABUS**

**1. Thermodynamics: Introduction and the First Law**

- Definitions
- Macroscopic and microscopic description
- Partitions (walls): adiabatic
*vs.*diathermal, rigid*vs.*flexible, etc. - Equilibria and principal possibility of a process in thermodynamics
- Internal energy, work and heat.
- Perfect and imperfect differentials
- Isothermal and adiabatic processes
- Carnot cycle

- The Second Law
- Carnot theorem.
- Entropy as a function of state
- Entropy and the Second Law
- Maximum of entropy and equilibrium.
- Fundamental relations. Entropy of ideal gas.
- Energy and enthalpy (heat function)
- Van der Waals fluid.
- Mixing ideal gases. Entropy of mixture.
- Joule process (expansion into vacuum)
- Maximum work theorem.
- Equilibria and maximum of entropy
- Thermodynamic identities. Maxwell identities. Reduction of derivatives, method of Jacobians.

- Probability: intuitive and axiomatic formulations
- Independent and mutually excluding events
- Combinatorial probability: Arrangements, permutations, and combinations
- Distributions

- Statistical expression for entropy (Boltzmann, S=k
_{B}Log W )

- Entropy of spins on a lattice
- Entropy for vacancies in a crystal
- The second law and thermodynamic fluctuations

- Entropy and the number of available sates for an isolated system (microcanonical ensemble). Microcanonical distribution.
- System in contact with thermal reservoir. Entropy and Gibbs distribution.
- Alternative way to derive the Gibbs distribution: Principle of maximum disorder
- Boltzmann formula for entropy
- Partition function. Helmholtz free energy and thermodynamics.
- Two-level system
- Monatomic ideal gas.
- Rotational and vibrational contributions.
- Equipartition
- Thermodynamic equilibria and minima of potentials
- Einstein and Debye heat capacity.*

- Identical particles in quantum mechanics.
- Pauli theorem on spin and statistics. Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics.
- Molecule with identical atoms
- Classical ideal gas and Maxwell distribution
- Black body radiation (photon gas) and Planck distribution.
- Thermodynamics of the photon gas.
- Einstein and Debye heat capacity of solids

- Chemical equilibria and chemical potentials
- Grand canonical ensemble and the grand canonical potential (or, grand potential).
- Fermi gas. Grand partition function. Fermi distribution and Fermi energy.
- Thermodynamic properties at
*T=*0 and T<<E_{F}. - Application to astrophysics. Equilibria of stars.*
- Bose systems. Bose condensation.
- Black body radiation revisited. Photons and Planck distribution.

- Polarization and electrostatic energy.*
- Dielectrics with fixed external potentials. Free energy of dielectrics.*
- Microscopic models of dielectrics. Rigid and induced dipoles.*
- Thomas-Fermi approximation for interacting electron gas. Debye screening. Plasmons.*
- Thermodynamics of magnetics.
- Pauli paramagnetism and Landau diamagnetism. Quantum oscillations.*

*) Time permitting (usually not taught unless the students express specific and significant interest)